The HyD SMD universal hybrid photodetector from Leica Microsystems (Mannheim, Germany) comprises a photomultiplier tube (PMT) with highly sensitive avalanche photodiodes (APD) to enable single-molecule detection (SMD). Integrated into the spectral detection system of the company's TCS SP8 confocal microscopy platform, all of the company's excitation sources like UV lasers, visible light lasers, and a white light laser can be used for SMD experiments. Built-in Peltier cooling and additional external cooling reduce specified dark noise. Absence of detector afterpulsing gives precise particle concentrations in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments, while short living dyes can be used to observe fast live cell processes, such as fluorescence lifetime measurement (FLIM).
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