Three-dimensional topological imaging with ptychography

The false color rendering shows topological features emerging from an initial, constant guess, reconstructed using ptychographic coherent diffraction imaging. As the image rotates, large titanium features (patterned with electron beam lithography on a silicon wafer) are immediately obvious after only a few iterations and even fine surface features begin to appear. After several iterations, the transverse resolution reduces to ~40 nm and the axial sensitivity is close to atomic resolution ~5 Å. The video shows 100 iterations of the extended ptychographical engine after solving for the high-harmonic complex beam profile. The iterative reconstruction process is similar to averaging in lens-based imaging systems.
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